Những từ vựng tiếng Anh quan trọng trong nghành luật

  1. Law – a system of rules and regulations that are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior
  2. Legal system – the set of laws and procedures that are used to resolve disputes and administer justice
  3. Court – a forum in which legal disputes are heard and determined
  4. Judge – a person who presides over a court and makes decisions on legal matters
  5. Lawyer – a professional who provides advice and representation on legal matters
  6. Attorney – a lawyer who is licensed to practice law
  7. Counsel – a lawyer who represents a client in court or provides legal advice
  8. Barrister – a lawyer who specializes in representing clients in court
  9. Solicitor – a lawyer who provides legal advice and assistance to clients and represents them in some courts
  10. Legal aid – financial assistance provided to individuals who cannot afford to pay for legal representation.
  1. Contract – a legally enforceable agreement between two or more parties
  2. Breach of contract – a failure to fulfill the terms of a contract
  3. Tort – a civil wrong that is committed against another person or property
  4. Negligence – failure to take reasonable care to prevent harm to others
  5. Liability – legal responsibility for one’s actions or inactions
  6. Personal injury – physical or psychological harm caused by the actions or inactions of another person
  7. Damages – compensation that is awarded to a person who has suffered harm or loss as a result of a wrong
  8. Settlement – an agreement between parties to a dispute to resolve their differences without going to trial
  9. Mediation – a process in which a neutral third party helps parties to a dispute to reach a mutually acceptable agreement
  10. Arbitration – a process in which a neutral third party hears and decides a dispute between parties who have agreed to be bound by the decision.
  1. Evidence – information that is presented in court to prove or disprove a fact
  2. Burden of proof – the responsibility of providing evidence to support a claim or accusation
  3. Testimony – a written or oral statement that is made under oath and is presented as evidence in court
  4. Witness – a person who gives evidence in court
  5. Cross-examination – the questioning of a witness by the opposing party in a court case
  6. Objection – a statement made by a lawyer during a court proceeding to challenge the admissibility of evidence or the relevance of a question
  7. Hearsay – evidence that is based on the statement of a person who is not present in court
  8. Affidavit – a written statement that is made under oath and is used as evidence in court
  9. Deposition – a sworn statement that is taken out of court and is used as evidence in a legal proceeding
  10. Subpoena – a court order that requires a person to appear in court or to produce evidence.
  1. Criminal law – the body of law that deals with the punishment of offenses that are considered to be harmful to society as a whole
  2. Crime – an act or omission that is prohibited by law and punishable by the state
  3. Offender – a person who has committed a crime
  4. Arrest – the process of taking a person into custody for the purpose of charging them with a crime
  5. Search warrant – a court order that authorizes law enforcement to search a specific location for evidence of a crime
  6. Warrant of arrest – a court order that authorizes the arrest of a person who is suspected of committing a crime
  7. Bail – money or property that is given to a court as a guarantee that an arrested person will appear in court
  8. Plea – a statement made by a defendant in a criminal case in response to a charge, either “guilty” or “not guilty”
  9. Trial – a legal proceeding in which the guilt or innocence of a defendant is determined by a judge or jury
  10. Sentencing – the process of imposing a punishment on a person who has been found guilty of a crime.
  1. Prosecution – the party that brings a criminal charge against a defendant
  2. Defense – the party that represents the defendant in a criminal case
  3. Public defender – a lawyer who is appointed by the court to represent a defendant who cannot afford to hire their own lawyer
  4. Jurisdiction – the authority of a court to hear and determine a case
  5. Appeals court – a court that hears appeals from lower courts
  6. Supreme court – the highest court in a jurisdiction
  7. Civil law – the body of law that deals with disputes between individuals or organizations and provides a remedy in the form of damages or an injunction
  8. Civil procedure – the rules and procedures that govern the conduct of civil litigation
  9. Jurisdiction – the authority of a court to hear and determine a case
  10. Venue – the geographic location in which a court has the authority to hear and determine a case.
  1. Filing a lawsuit – the process of initiating a civil action by presenting a complaint to the court
  2. Summons – a document that is issued by a court and that requires a person to appear in court to respond to a lawsuit
  3. Complaint – the initial document that is filed with the court in a civil action and that sets forth the allegations against the defendant
  4. Answer – the document that is filed by the defendant in response to a complaint and that sets forth their defenses to the allegations
  5. Discovery – the process of exchanging information and evidence between the parties to a lawsuit
  6. Deposition – a sworn statement that is taken out of court and is used as evidence in a legal proceeding
  7. Interrogatories – written questions that are served on a party to a lawsuit and that must be answered under oath
  8. Request for production – a request for the other party to a lawsuit to produce documents or other tangible evidence
  9. Request for admission – a request for the other party to a lawsuit to admit or deny the truth of certain facts
  10. Summary judgment – a judgment entered by a court based on the evidence presented by the parties without a trial.
  1. Settlement – an agreement between parties to a dispute to resolve their differences without going to trial
  2. Mediation – a process in which a neutral third party helps parties to a dispute to reach a mutually acceptable agreement
  3. Arbitration – a process in which a neutral third party hears and decides a dispute between parties who have agreed to be bound by the decision
  4. Trial – a legal proceeding in which the facts of a case are presented to a judge or jury, who then determines the outcome
  5. Verdict – the decision of a judge or jury in a trial
  6. Judgment – a court’s final decision in a case
  7. Appeal – the process of requesting that a higher court review the decision of a lower court
  8. Writ of certiorari – an order issued by a higher court directing a lower court to send the record of a case for review
  9. Precedent – a judicial decision that is cited as an example or authority in subsequent similar cases
  10. Statute – a written law that is enacted by a legislative body.
  1. Constitution – the fundamental law of a country that establishes the principles, structures and processes of the government
  2. Bill of rights – a statement of the fundamental rights of citizens that is incorporated into a constitution
  3. Amendment – a change or addition to a constitution
  4. Statutory law – a law that is enacted by a legislative body
  5. Common law – a law that is based on the customs and principles of a community, as opposed to statutory law
  6. Case law – the law that is derived from judicial decisions and interpretations of statutes and the constitution
  7. Administrative law – the law that is concerned with the powers, procedures and decisions of administrative agencies
  8. Regulatory agency – a government agency that is responsible for enforcing a specific set of laws or regulations
  9. Rulemaking – the process of creating, amending or repealing a regulation
  10. Administrative hearing – a formal proceeding in which a regulatory agency considers evidence and arguments on a matter that is within its jurisdiction.

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